Tagmode share

Mode share by trip miles and trip frequency in Chicago and Cook County

Two tables in this post. Data from the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning’s 2008 Travel Tracker Survey. Download source file (pdf).

Table 1. Number represents share of trip miles taken by that mode. So in Central Chicago (which seems to comprise neighborhoods as far north as Uptown and as far south as Hyde Park), 1.4% of all trip miles are by bike. If 1,000 people take 100 trips of 2 miles each, then 2,800 miles will be by bike.

Emanuel campaign contributions

DonorContributionsConnection (Tribune)Notable properties or permits
Grosvenor Capital Management$1,056,287Grosvenor CEO Michael Sacks, vice chairman of World Business Chicago and Emanuel confidante.900 N Michigan Shops
Madison Dearborn Partners$858,800Investor in city contractor CDW Government; co-CEO Sam Mencoff appointed to World Business Chicago.NA
Plumbers and Pipefitters unions$766,500Mayor's water and sewer upgrades boost union jobs.NA
Citadel$559,550CEO Ken Griffin meets with mayor; firm invests in Chicago Mercantile Exchange, which mayor backed for state tax breaks; also invests in companies doing business with city.Renovations in its own building
Muneer Satter$352,600Former executive at Goldman Sachs, which got city bond business; appointed to World Business Chicago.Renovations to its office
Harris Associates$290,000Firm's Oakmark Fund invests in LiveNation, which books concerts at city's Northerly Island.Renovations to its office
DRW Trading Group$255,100Donald R. Wilson Jr., founder of DRW trading firm, is developer of multiple hotel projects; Emanuel appeared with Wilson to lobby regulators on futures trading rules.NA
Henry Crown & Co.$254,400President James S. Crown appointed by mayor to World Business Chicago.NA
Donald Edwards$241,600Mayoral appointee to World Business Chicago and Chicago Park District.NA
Lettuce Entertain You$236,850Partner in restaurants at O'Hare International Airport.Listed under several names. Search "Lettuce"
Groupon$231,200CEO Eric Lefkofsky appointed to World Business Chicago; co-chair of Emanuel-supported Chicago Ideas Week.Renovations to its office
JMB companies$191,900Neil Bluhm, Judd Malkin. Control JMB Realty, Bluhm's Walton St. Capital gets city pension business.Listed under several names. Search "JMB". Also associated with the 900 N Michigan Shops
Teamsters$184,700Emanuel labor rule changes hurt other unions, left Teamsters largely unscathed.NA
David Helfand$180,900Real estate executive, now with Equity Group Investments, major holder of Chicago real estate.NA
Chopper Trading$173,300Emanuel appealed to regulators to ease commodities futures trading rules for firms like Chopper.Renovations to its office
Medline Industries Inc.$171,600COO Jim Abrams appointed to World Business Chicago; mayoral jobs announcement and appearance at business conference.NA
Bartlit, Beck, Herman, Palenchar and Scott$162,300Law partner on CHA board.NA
PEAK6$160,000Emanuel appealed to regulators to ease commodities futures trading rules for firms like PEAK6.Renovations to its office
Joe Mansueto$160,000CEO of Morningstar, which has contract with Chicago Public Library.Renovations to the Morningstar office in Block 37
John Buck Co.$140,000Development projects downtown; John Buck appointed to World Business Chicago; gets city pension business.Listed under 10 names. 155 N Wacker Drive skyscraper opened in 2010. New residential tower at 200 N Michigan (yet going under the address of 201 N Garland Ct).
United Airlines$137,783United executives appointed to World Business Chicago; jobs and headquarters announcements.Majority of permits are for O’Hare operations. Others include renovations to its downtown office building.
Beacon Capital Partners$137,000Office building redevelopments.Unknown. There are many entries with "Beacon".
Jenner & Block$136,878Legal fees for O'Hare International Airport litigation.Listed under several names. Search "Jenner & Block"
AT&T$127,600City telecommunications contract. Donations from AT&T Illinois Employee PAC.Listed under 19 names.
Duchossois family$124,900Craig Duchossois appointed to World Business Chicago.NA
DLA Piper$124,700Helps clients get city tax increment financing (TIF) funds.Renovations to its office
Pritzker Group$124,500J.B. Pritzker appointed to World Business Chicago; head of 1871 tech incubator frequented by Emanuel.Only Penny Pritzker is listed, associated with an office renovation.
Exelon Corp.$124,200CEO Christopher Crane appointed to World Business Chicago.Listed under 7 names.
Winston & Strawn$114,000Legal fees on city bond business.Listed under 2 names, associated with an office renovation.
Clayco$105,000Emanuel joined CEO Robert Clark to announce headquarters move to Chicago.Listed under 4 names. Contractor for the University of Chicago and downtown office renovations.
Schiff Hardin LLP$94,250Legal fees on city bond business.NA
Chicago Trading Co.$92,000Emanuel appealed to regulators to ease commodities futures trading rules for firms like CTC.NA
Roger J. Kiley Jr.$75,600Emanuel reappointed to board of Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority.NA
Friedman Properties$75,550Hotel developments needing city permits.Listed under 6 names.
Sidley Austin LLP$74,450Represents clients on city development issues.Listed under 2 names, associated with an office renovation.
Power, Rogers and Smith$73,500Partner Larry R. Rogers Sr. appointed to City Colleges Board.NA
BDT Capital Partners, LLC$70,900Managing partner Byron Trott appointed to World Business Chicago; BDT bought and re-developing Wrigley Building.Renovations to its office
White Lodging Services$66,100Development partner on River North hotel complex.Minor elevator work
Victory Park Capital$65,000Victory CEO/founder Richard Levy is investor in North Side soccer field that needed city approval; firm owns Giordano's pizza chain that has needed city approvals for expansion.NA
Magellan Development Group, LLC$64,000Development partner on proposed Wanda Vista skyscraper praised by Emanuel.Listed under 4 names. Lakeshore East developer
Centerview Partners$61,500Consultant to Comcast merger with Time-Warner Cable, which Emanuel backed in letter to FCC.NA
Katten Muchin$61,300Legal fees on city bond business.Renovations to its office
Gibsons Restaurant Group$60,113City signed off on sidewalk expansion at Rush Street restaurant.NA
Martin J. Koldyke$55,600Founder of Academy for Urban School Leadership (AUSL), which takes over troubled city schools.NA
Richard Sandor$55,000Sandor is board member of Chicago Clean Energy Trust, a nonprofit supported by Emanuel that received a grant worth $2.2 million in federal and private funding.NA
Willis Stein and Partners$55,000Equity firm owns Roundy's, which owns Mariano's grocery chain that gets city TIF money.Search for "Mariano’s" and "Roundy’s". Minor projects.
Comcast$52,000Emanuel supported Comcast merger with Time-Warner Cable in letter to FCC.Listed under 6 names. Renovations to its office and retail store in Lincoln Park.
Jerry Reinsdorf$50,000Reinsdorf owns Chicago Bulls. City approved Bulls practice facility, Emanuel held news conference.New "Advocate Center" practice facility at 15 S Wood Street.
Isaac Goldman$45,300Emanuel appointed Front Barnett principal Isaac "Sandy" Goldman to Illinois Medical District Commission.NA
Chicago Board Options Exchange$40,300Emanuel supported state tax breaks for commodities exchanges; CEO Bill Brodsky on World Business Chicago.Listed under 3 names for renovations to its 400 S LaSalle Street office.
Robert Rubin$40,300Mayor attends Rubin's Hamilton Project retreat.NA
Valor Equity Partners$40,000Emanuel appointed Valor CEO Antonio Gracias to World Business Chicago.NA
Walgreen Co.$38,850Then-Walgreen CEO Greg Wasson appointed to World Business Chicago. Contract for city worker wellness screenings.Listed under 13 names. Many permits are drug store renovations.
PGR Holding LLC$35,500Pat Ryan Jr., son of Aon insurance founder, appointed to World Business Chicago; also founded charter school that receives city support. Pat Ryan Sr. heads PGR Holding.NA
University Public Issues Committee$35,000PAC linked to Northwestern University; Emanuel signed off on request to demolish Prentice hospital.NA
Rooney family$31,298R4 Services, headed by Trisha Rooney Alden, has records storage contracts with city and City Colleges of Chicago. Donations from multiple family members, including former Waste Management CEO Phil Rooney.NA
Willis$28,300City insurance contract. City Colleges partnership with Willis to train potential employees.NA
Northern Trust$25,800Retired CEO William Osborn appointed to World Business Chicago. Also an underwriter on city bond business.Listed under 9 names. Renovations to its various office buildings and bank outlets.
Jimmy John's$25,600Restaurants get various permits for business in Chicago.Sign and awning permits.
System Development Integration$20,000CTA contract, other city technology contracts; sought red light camera contract.NA

Table 2. Number represents share of trips taken by that mode, regardless of distance.

[table “2” not found /]

Frequency of Chicago women riding their bikes to work is down

UPDATE: I added data from years 2005-2007 to complement existing 2008-2009 data in Table 1 as well as a visual representation. I have also added data from the 3-year estimates to Table 2.

UPDATE 01/20/11: Added the most recent 3-year estimate that the Census Bureau released in January 2011 to Table 2.

In September 2009, I wrote about “what the Census tells us about bicycle commuting” and a couple of days ago I compared Chicago to Minneapolis and St. Paul.

I want to update readers on the changes between the 1-year estimate data reported in that article (from 2008) and the most recent 1-year estimate data (from 2009). Percentages represent workers in the City of Chicago aged 16 and older riding bicycles to work.

Table 1 – Bicycling to work, 16 and older, 1-year estimates

Year Total MOE Male MOE Female MOE
2005 0.7% +/-0.1 0.9% of 621,537 +/-0.2 0.4% of 541,013 +/-0.1
2006 0.9% +/-0.2 1.2% of 645,903 +/-0.3 0.7% of 563,219 +/-0.2
2007 1.1% +/-0.2 1.4% of 656,288 +/-0.3 0.7% of 574,645 +/-0.2
2008 1.0% +/-0.2 1.5% of 657,101 +/-0.3 0.5% of 603,640 +/-0.2
2009 1.1% +/-0.2 1.8% of 651,394 +/-0.3 0.4% of 620,350 +/-0.1

View graph of Table 1. MOE = margin of error, in percentage points.

We should be concerned about the possible decrease in the percentage of women riding bicycles to work, especially as the population size increased. The margin of error also decreased, thus suggesting an improvement in the accuracy of the data. There have already been many discussions (mine, others) as to why it is important to encourage women to ride bicycles and also what the woman cycling rate tells us about our cities and policies. If the decrease continues we must discover the causes.

But Table 1 doesn’t tell the full story.

As Matt points out in the comments below, the number of surveys returned for 1-year estimates is smaller than that from the Decennial Census. Therefore, I took a look at the two 3-year estimates available, each having a larger sample size than the 1-year estimates (see Table 2). The data below seem to show the opposite change than seen in Table 1: that the number of women bicycling to work has increased. The crux of our quandary is sample size. The sample size is the number of people who are asked, “How did this person usually get to work LAST WEEK?”

Table 2 – Bicycling to work, 16 and older, 3-year estimates

Click header for data source 2005-2007 2006-2008 2007-2009
Total workers 1,203,063 1,230,809 (+2.31%) 1,291,709 (+4.71%)
Males bicycling to work 7,549 9,014 (+19.41%) 11,014 (+18.16%)
Females bicycling to work 3,474 3,741 (+7.69%) 3,542 (-5.62%)

The number of discrete females who bike to work has decreased in the most recent survey (2007-2009) while the total number of workers 16 and older has increased, giving females bicycling to work a smaller share than the previous survey (2006-2008). We must be careful to also note the margin of error for females bicycling to work is ±499.

Matt suggested that sustainable transportation advocates “push for higher sampling” to reduce “data noise” and increase the accuracy of how this data represents actual conditions. I agree – I’d also like more data on all trips, and not just those made to go to work. Household travel surveys attempt to reveal more information about a region’s transportation.

One of the two overall goals of the Bike 2015 Plan is “to increase bicycle use, so that 5 percent of all trips less than five miles are by bicycle.” Unfortunately, the Plan doesn’t provide baseline data for this metric, but we can make some inferences (there will probably be no data for this in 2015, either). The CMAP Household Travel Survey summary from 2008 says that the mean trip distance (for all trips) for Cook County households is 4.38 miles (under five miles). The same survey says that for all trips, 1.3% were taken by bike. These can be our metrics. *See below for men/women breakdown. Note that no data for “all trips” exists for the City of Chicago.

We will not achieve the Bike 2015 Plan goal unless we do something about the conditions that promote and increase bicycling. Achieving the goals in the Bike 2015 Plan is not one group or agency’s responsibility. The Plan should be seen as a manifestation of what can and should be done for bicycling in Chicago and we all have a duty to promote its objectives.

Please leave a comment below for why you think the rate of women who bike to work has stayed flat and decreased, or what you think we can do to change this. Does it have to do with the urban environment, or are the reasons closer to home?

*The same survey also said: Cook County males used the bike for 1.9% of all trips. Cook County females used the bike for 0.8% of all trips.

Table 1 data comes from the 1-year estimates from the American Community survey, table S0801, Commuting Characteristics by Sex for the City of Chicago (permalink), which is a summary table of data in table B08006. Table 2 data directly from American Community Survey table B08006.

How many people ride bikes in Minneapolis and St. Paul compared to Chicago?

I applied for a job on Tuesday in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area (Twin Cities).

I had heard that more people, as a percentage of all commuters, commute by bike in Minneapolis and St. Paul than in Chicago and many other cities. If you’ve been reading Steven can plan for a while, you know that I visited Minneapolis in September 2009 and rented a bike for 24 hours.

I used the American FactFinder to get the details. And now I know what I heard is true.

Chicago Minneapolis St. Paul
Workers over 16 1,230,809 190,814 131,798
Ride bikes to work 12,755 6,770 1,567
Bike mode share 1.04% 3.55% 1.19%

Permalink to data results. Data from the 2006-2008 3-year American Community Survey estimates, table B08301.

Knowing these figures led me to question the nothing that Chicago is a bicycle-friendly city. If it’s so friendly to riding a bicycle, how come there aren’t more people riding their bikes to work?

One of my ideas: There are many trails criss-crossing Hennepin and Ramsey Counties that go to and through major neighborhoods and employment centers. These are essentially bike highways without the threat of a automobiles.

What the Census says about bicycle commuting

UPDATE 11-08-10: I wrote a post comparing the commuting statistics between Chicago, Minneapolis, and St. Paul.

UPDATE 02-12-11: Added 2009 data.

Prompted by this entry on BikePortland about the rise of bicycle commuting and the bicycle mode share in Portland, Oregon, I decided to research what the American Community Survey says about the mode share of bicycles as part of commuting where I live: Chicago. I’ll also post bicycle’s share of commuting for other locales, as well.

Some definitions, first:

  • Commuting means travel to and from work – the Census Bureau calls this “MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK.” The Census Bureau does not collect information on travel to shopping, medical services, and other places in the decennial census or the yearly American Community Survey (which will supposedly replace the decennial census).
  • Block means the smallest area for which the Census Bureau reports statistics. Any smaller and the possibility that someone could personally identify you from the responses increases. Find your block. The American Community Survey reports information for much larger areas: In some cases, researchers can only select data at the county level. The Census Bureau provides information for the City of Chicago and other municipal divisions of many counties in Illinois.
  • Subject definitions. These describe the question asked to participants and include clarifying information in the case the participant doesn’t understand the question, or their answer is complex. Download the subject definitions for the 2008 American Community Survey.
  • Margin of error (MOE) means the high and low end of confidence. Read more about margin of error on the Census Bureau’s website.

For the American Community Survey, I found table S0801, Commuting Characteristics by Sex. In the decennial census, I found table  P30. MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK FOR WORKERS 16 YEARS AND OVER. If you want to check my research, look for these tables of sample data.

Chicago:
Margin of error for male and female categories varied. Combined always reported 0.2%.

  • 2009 – 1.1% travel to work by bicycle. 1.8% male (MOE: 0.3%), 0.4% female (MOE: 0.1%). Workers over 16: 1,271,744. Permalink.
  • 2008 – 1.0% travel to work by bicycle. 1.5% male (MOE: 0.3%), 0.5% female (MOE: 0.2%). Workers over 16: 1,260,741. Permalink.
  • 2007 – 1.1% travel to work by bicycle. 1.4% male (MOE: 0.3%), 0.7% female (MOE: 0.2%). Workers over 16: 1,230,933. Permalink.
  • 2006 – 0.9% travel to work by bicycle. 1.2% male (MOE: 0.3%), 0.7% female (MOE: 0.2%). Workers over 16: 1,209,122. Permalink.
  • 2005 – 0.7% travel to work by bicycle. 0.9% male (MOE: 0.1%), 0.4% female (MOE: 0.1%). Workers over 16: 1,162,550. Permalink.

United States:
Margin of error happened to be the same for each reported category (combined, male, female).

  • 2009 – 0.6% travel to work by bicycle. 0.8% male, 0.3% female. MOE: 0.1%. Workers over 16: 138,591,804 (decrease). Permalink.
  • 2008 – 0.5% travel to work by bicycle. 0.8% male, 0.3% female. MOE: 0.1%. Workers over 16: 143,995,967. Permalink.
  • 2007 – 0.5% travel to work by bicycle. 0.7% male, 0.2% female. MOE: 0.1%. Workers over 16: 139,259,684. Permalink.
  • 2006 – 0.5% travel to work by bicycle. 0.6% male, 0.2% female. MOE: 0.1%. Workers over 16: 138,265,905. Permalink.
  • 2005 – 0.4% travel to work by bicycle. 0.6% male, 0.2% female. MOE: 0.1%. Workers over 16: 133,091,043. Permalink.

Read the BikePortland article if you want to know that Portland has a higher share of commuters traveling by bicycle than Chicago has.

And what about my block? As I mentioned above, we can only find information at the block group level in the decennial census. I live in Block Group 1 of Census Tract 6009 in Chicago, Illinois. I didn’t live here in 2000, though, the last time the decennial census occurred. Back then, out of 168 workers over 16, 4 of them rode their bikes to work! That equals .024% of the worker population in my block group. Oddly, though, the Census Bureau reported 946 people living in this Block Group. Looking at table P8 (Sex By Age), I see that 674 have at least 16 years of age. 178 people have at least 55 years. Does this mean a lot of people in the Block Group didn’t work at the time of the survey in 2000? I don’t know. Permalink to data.

By far, though, driving alone won as the most popular way to get to work: 71.423% of the worker population.

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