Tag: EveryBlock

The effects of TOD bonuses versus what a transit overlay district could do

I responded to Carter O’Brien’s comment on an EveryBlock discussion about a gentrification series on WBEZ, Chicago’s National Public Radio affiliate. I reposted the comment here because I want to talk about the problems of piecemeal zoning and how the city’s TOD ordinance can be improved to generate more and diverse housing types (by types I’m talking about quantity of units and stories, not rent vs. own).

@Carter: I think we might be on the same page about something. You wrote:

The question becomes to what degree should zoning be used to encourage one form of land use over another. That’s the tool in the City’s toolbox, so to speak.

Substantial zoning bonuses which will create brand new high rise towers in a neighborhood of lower-density historic architecture will encourage the settling of one economic class of people and the removal of another. [snip] The evidence is that we see shrinking populations of lower-middle class people raising families by the L stops in Wicker Park, Bucktown, Old Town, Lincoln Park and Lake View.

[Actually, pause now and go read Carter’s full comment – he mentions teardowns as an issue that should be part of a gentrifying neighborhood discussion.]

I like that the TOD ordinance seems to be fueling proposals to build many units near transit stations, but it may be building more many units than the community prefers.

I’d like to see transit-oriented zoning also used as a tool to also spur smaller, multi-unit buildings (two flats, three flats, four flats, courtyard buildings) by perhaps preventing low-density buildings so close to transit.

Across from Goethe Elementary School a huge parcel of land is being turned into 7 single-family homes on Medill Ave. That’s great land near a good school and 3 blocks from the California Blue Line station.

Zoning could have been used to require 2-4 unit buildings so that more families have a chance of benefiting from that location but instead the zoning district here makes building 2-4 unit residences on those parcels illegal.

A “transit overlay district” would be something new to Chicago and could do away with the piecemeal zoning of differing densities, one right next to or mixed in with the other. You might see Bx-1 next to Cx-2 and then a Rx-4. Create concentric zoning circles that keep the density uniformly high nearest the train station and then drop off the further away you get.

zoning districts around the California Blue Line station

This map includes the California Blue Line station and the Goethe school houses (empty area northwest of the RM-5 zone on Medill Avenue). The school is outlined inside PD 349.

Quick zoning primer

  • Adapted from Second City Zoning’s plain-English zoning district descriptions.
  • B = retail and apartments above
  • C = commercial (more business types than B) and apartments above
  • RS = single-family homes only
  • RT = 2-4 flats, single-family allowed
  • RM = multi-unit, single-family allowed

The -x number of a district indicates the density allowed (this works for single-family homes, too, setting the minimum parcel area upon which the house is built).

Note: This post has slightly different text from my EveryBlock comment because I had to edit that one for length (the site accepts 2,000 characters maximum).

The importance of sharing data in KML format

The KML file is an important format in which to share locational data. KML was developed by a company called Keyhole, which Google purchased in 2004, and subsequently released Keyhole’s flagship product: Earth.

A Keyhole Markup Language file is a way to display on a map (particularly a 3D globe of Earth) a collection of points with a defined style. Google has added more functionality and style to the KML format, expanding the styles that can be applied and the information that can be embedded.

KML, like XML (eXtensible Markup Language), is extremely web-friendly. For a web application at work I developed, I included this PHP class that creates an KML file on-demand based on a predefined database query. The file contains locations and attributes of recently installed bike racks in Chicago. EveryBlock imports the file and its information into their location-based service, aggregating many news types around your block.

But a KML file is more important than being the native file for use within Google Earth. It’s an open source text file that can be manipulated by a number of software programs on any computer system on earth (or read on a printed page). It’s not encoded, like shapefiles, so I can read the file with my own mind and understand the data it would present in a compatible map viewer. I see lines of organized syntax describing points and polygons, listing their attributes in plain language.

Have you ever tried to see the “inside” of a shapefile? Only GIS programs can read them for you. KML provides data producers and consumers the opportunities to keep data open, available, and easy to use. We need locational data for our work, and we need tools to help us use it, not hide it.